Development Archive

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Karsten Weitzenegger joins Action4SD

Logo.Action4SDKarsten Weitzenegger supports ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT http://action4sd.org and calls civil society organisations to become members of this global platform.

From the Mission Statement

We see the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change as opportunities to move towards such transformation. If these commitments are met, we have a chance of saving the planet and delivering just outcomes for all people. This agenda is the responsibility of us all, not just those we put into political office . The sustainable development agenda is a social contract between the people and public authorities. Democratic and participatory processes where people are able to effectively contribute are critical to achieving this agenda. We come together to inspire and to commit to actions that empower all peoples, especially those who have been marginalised, and in order to collectively tackle the root causes of inequalities, injustice, human rights violations, poverty, environmental degradation and climate change.

We want a world where social, environmental and development justice is assured and all people are able to live in a prosperous, healthy, secure and peaceful environment. We urgently need a world where everyone is able to equally and freely participate and influence the decisions that affect their lives and hold governments, international institutions, private sector and other stakeholders to account. We want an inclusive society where everyone has the right to express themselves in a way that their voices are heard , respected and can directly shape the decision-making process . Our vision is a transformational shift that ensures gender justice and equality, enabling everyone to live their lives in dignity, free from hunger and from the fear of violence, oppression, discrimination or injustice – including due to gender identity or sexual orientation – in a way that protects the planetary systems required to sustain all life on earth.

We want to see a world where a phrase like ‘leave no one behind’ actually delivers for those who are at risk of marginalisation. We will strive to combat inequalities of all forms, between and within countries. We commit to take actions that are accountable and responsive to local needs. We want a new global approach where the economic and financial systems are an instrument to deliver wellbeing for all. This implies an economic model that is not based on debts; where trade is not an objective on its own, but a way to distribute goods and services equitably; where labour standards and limits of planetary boundaries are respected; where local and regional trade, small and medium social enterprises and cooperatives are supported to achieve sustainable consumption and production.
An economic approach where the global trading system is just, people-responsive and where developing countries have the right to develop according to their own models.

We further call for a holistic approach that recognises the balance of economic, natural and social rights, as set out by traditional and indigenous wisdoms. We also need a financial system which supports and does not contradict sustainable development. Fair financial mechanisms and investments are crucial and we will push for robust implementation of commitments made, including the Financing for Sustainable Development process.

We come together to support each other in achieving this world we urgently need

Current areas of work are:

  1. Policy & Advocacy. We will analyse and ask tough questions where we see problems, risks and shortcomings; we will work in a coordinated way to push power-holders to deliver better outcomes for people and planet.
  2. Monitoring & Accountability. We will actively monitor implementation of the agreed agenda and invest in the capacity and agency of civil society to monitor progress on sustainable development.
  3. Innovative solutions. We will showcase examples of how civil society is itself delivering on the sustainable development agenda, not just to highlight best practice and innovation, but also to hold ourselves accountable. We will share inspiring ideas and resources tomake sure that alternative solutions are grounded in local needs.
  4. Public mobilisation. Recognising that this should be a People’s Agenda, we will work to familiarise the public with sustainable development and the commitments made by governments, in order to promote people- powered accountability and support the mobilisation of people. We will organise solidarity actions with people working for sustainable development and cooperate with others to build a people’s movement.

Latest Activities

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Weitzenegger joins SEEDwork Sustainable Economic Development and Employment

Karsten Weitzenegger is an Associate of SEEDwork, the expert association for sustainable economic development and employment. Please visit my profile at http://www.seedwork.net/profile/karsten-weitzenegger SEEDwork is a registered non-profit association composed of professionals with long-standing experience in technical and financial development cooperation. The purpose of the association is the promotion of societal and economic development in developing and threshold countries. SEEDwork focuses on sustainable growth, decent work, and the promotion of international cooperation in this regard. “Growth – Income – Social Inclusion” We promote economic development and employment in a range of different areas. In many cases, reforms in the financial sector are necessary to establish transparency for investors or to provide individuals and micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) with funding. This may especially apply to micro-credits for the small entities. Therefore, we link existing and would-be entrepreneurs to financing institutions. Regarding sustainable business development we use value chain analyses as […]

seedwork_logo1Karsten Weitzenegger is an Associate of SEEDwork, the expert association for sustainable economic development and employment. Please visit my profile at http://www.seedwork.net/profile/karsten-weitzenegger

SEEDwork is a registered non-profit association composed of professionals with long-standing experience in technical and financial development cooperation. The purpose of the association is the promotion of societal and economic development in developing and threshold countries. SEEDwork focuses on sustainable growth, decent work, and the promotion of international cooperation in this regard.

“Growth – Income – Social Inclusion”

We promote economic development and employment in a range of different areas. In many cases, reforms in the financial sector are necessary to establish transparency for investors or to provide individuals and micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) with funding. This may especially apply to micro-credits for the small entities. Therefore, we link existing and would-be entrepreneurs to financing institutions.

Regarding sustainable business development we use value chain analyses as a starting point to develop action plans for the MSMEs involved, and we accompany their implementation. With all our activities we particularly cater for the special needs of different target groups like for example the qualification of young people to increase their employability or their chances to become self-employed, e.g. in the green sector.

In addition, we involve members of the Diaspora who wish to contribute to the economic development of their countries of origin be it through own investments or the extension/linkage of their existing businesses in their new home-countries with their country of origin. We incorporate professional bodies like chambers and associations in our work to enable companies to learn from each other and to improve their business performance.

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OECD publishes 2016 Review | Evaluation Systems in Development Co-operation

Evaluation Systems in Development Co-operation | 2016 Review

DOI:10.1787/9789264262065-en
Evaluation is widely recognised as an important component for learning and improving development effectiveness. Evaluation responds to public and taxpayer demands for credible information and independent assessment of development co-operation activities. The Development Assistance Committee’s Network on Development Evaluation supports members in their efforts to strengthen and continuously improve evaluation systems.

The 2016 review of evaluation systems in development co-operation looks at the changes and trends in evaluation systems over the last five years. The report describes the role and management of evaluation in development agencies, ministries and multilateral banks. It provides information about the specific institutional settings, resources, policies and practices of DAC Evaluation Network members, and includes specific profiles on each member’s evaluation system. The study identifies major trends and current challenges in development evaluation. It covers issues such as human and financial resources, institutional setups and policies, independence of the evaluation function, reporting and use of evaluation findings, joint evaluation, and the involvement of partner countries in evaluation work.

This report is part of the DAC Network on Development Evaluation’s ongoing efforts to increase the effectiveness of development co-operation policies and programmes by promoting high-quality, independent evaluation.

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The Great Investment Turnaround: how to finance a sustainable world economy

Berlin, 07/20/2016 – Banks and insurers can play a crucial part in stabilizing the climate, while at the same time safeguarding their clients’ assets. Leading representatives of finance and climate research will discuss the best strategies for a turnaround in investing this Thursday in Berlin. The event is hosted by the Swiss global bank UBS, the French multinational insurance firm AXA, CDP, the European innovation initiative Climate-KIC, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK). Divestment – the diversion of capital from fossil fuel industries to green innovation and sustainable businesses – is a new approach to reducing greenhouse-gas emissions, which could turn out to be a global “game changer”. The Great Investment Turnaround: how to finance a sustainable world economy Already today, investments of billions of Euros are being redirected. Pioneered by students of wealthy US universities, divestment has reached financial big shots like Allianz […]

Berlin, 07/20/2016 – Banks and insurers can play a crucial part in stabilizing the climate, while at the same time safeguarding their clients’ assets. Leading representatives of finance and climate research will discuss the best strategies for a turnaround in investing this Thursday in Berlin. The event is hosted by the Swiss global bank UBS, the French multinational insurance firm AXA, CDP, the European innovation initiative Climate-KIC, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK). Divestment – the diversion of capital from fossil fuel industries to green innovation and sustainable businesses – is a new approach to reducing greenhouse-gas emissions, which could turn out to be a global “game changer”.

The Great Investment Turnaround: how to finance a sustainable world economy

Already today, investments of billions of Euros are being redirected. Pioneered by students of wealthy US universities, divestment has reached financial big shots like Allianz by now: the financial services company announced its intention to divest from its assets in coal mining. The foundation of the legendary US oil dynasty Rockefeller plans to divest their funds from the fossil fuel industry as well.

“The risks of climate change affect everyone and everything. When the finance sector now divests billions from the fossil business, this does not only reflect a moral responsibility but also makes good business sense,” says PIK director Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, co-initiator of the conference. “While weather extremes increase already, many of the biggest climate impacts, like the consequences of sea-level rise, will become perceptible only after it would be too late to act. Therefore it is important for the finance sector to recognize the warnings of science and to ramp up sustainable investments as soon as possible. The Paris Agreement substantiates that the nations of the world aim at reaching zero emissions by 2050. This means we are now in year one of the Great Transformation. Whoever still invests in coal and oil will not only damage the environment, but eventually also lose a lot of money.”

“Recognize the possible economic and social impacts of climate change”

„As a global bank it is of major importance to recognize the possible economic and social impacts of climate change, in order to better prepare us and our clients,” says Axel Weber, Chairman of the Board of Directors of UBS Group AG. “The financial sector is working hard to lay the foundations for filling gaps in financing climate action and to support nations in delivering on their corresponding commitments. We aim for a sensible long-term allocation of capital that is congruent with a low-carbon economy.”

Christian Thimann, Global Head of Strategy, Sustainability, and Public Affairs at AXA Group and Vice-Chair of the FSB Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosure, says: “Finance has an important role in addressing climate change, because it steers long-term investment. Investors need to understand how companies address climate change in their strategies, which goes well beyond the current carbon footprint. Under the mandate of the G20 and the Financial Stability Board, the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosure seeks to develop consistent voluntary disclosures by companies and enhance investor understanding of climate-related business risks and opportunities. Such disclosures and better investor understanding will foster implementation of the COP21 agreement.”

„Divestment is one of the most potent signals of investor discontent”

Susan Dreyer, CDP Country Director Germany, Austria, Switzerland adds: „Divestment is one of the most potent signals of investor discontent and can be a valuable method to manage portfolio risk, given climate risks are becoming more urgent every day. Having built a platform for transparent and comparable climate strategies, into which 5600 companies worldwide are voluntary reporting today, CDP knows of the impact investor engagement can unfold. Shareholder resolutions or setting joint reduction targets are good examples. And yet, the clear signal from both civil society and investors that fossil based business models do not have a future in the decarbonized world of 2050, is helpful and needed.”

Among the distinguished speakers are also Rainer Baake, State Secretary at the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, Laurence Tubiana, French Ambassador for international climate negotiations at COP 21, Monsignor Marcelo Sánchez Sorondo, Chancellor of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, and high-ranking finance representatives, from the major bank HSBC to Union Investment, from the central bank of the Netherlands to the French Ministry of Finance.

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The development effectiveness of Development Finance Institutions

Development funding is increasingly being channelled through Development Finance Institutions. These national institutions are particularly solicited when using development aid money to free up further investment, known as leveraging. When used well, these tools have the potential to allow sectors of developing countries’ economies that wouldn’t otherwise attract investment to strengthen and expand. However, this joint TUDCN-CPDE research paper highlights a number of alarming shortfalls in how these institutions operate that can seriously undermine international development goals.

This new report, entitled ‘The development effectiveness of supporting the private sector with ODA funds’ examined nine Development Finance Institutions (DFIs). It is jointly produced by the CSO Partnership for Development Effectiveness (CPDE) and the TUDCN. Five case studies (available below) provided a background for the study which found that DFI practice is lacking in three vital areas:

Ownership

Ownership has been repeatedly highlighted as a fundamental pillar of development. In spite of that, the majority of the DFIs examined had policies that expressed a preference for supporting the interests of the donor country. This is in clear contradiction of the aim of promoting local ownership and that of ensuring that aid by untied from external interests. In the case of COFIDES (Spain) and OPIC (USA) they go as far as requiring that any investment they make benefit their national (donor) companies. It is perhaps no coincidence that these are the only two DFIs examined in the study that are part owned by private national stakeholders. The issue of private ownership needs to be addressed as it creates a bias that can evidently lead to the compromising of development interests. The concept of ownership also extends to setting the aims of projects. However, not one of the DFIs require that either developing country governments or local social partners be consulted in setting out the aims of a project.

Development results

In order to obtain a good and independent idea of what the development impacts are on the ground, there is a need for performance standards and monitoring systems to be accessible. However, reporting standards are insufficient across the board. There is currently too strong a reliance on self-reporting and limited use of monitoring indicators. Key documentation required for ensuring accountability is not made available. Furthermore, as highlighted by the Panama Papers, it is widely recognised that offshore financial centres (OFCs) have a negative impact on developing countries. It is astounding then that 75% of CDC’s (UK) investments went through jurisdictions that are among the 20 most secretive. This poses serious challenges to the transparency of the DFIs’ work.

Mutual accountability

Meanwhile, accountability flows in only one direction. There is a need for stakeholders to have access to essential information and for complaint procedures to be systematically put in place in order for the opinions of the beneficiaries to be heard. The ability of workers to get organised and raise a complaint to the relevant body is also questioned. This reflects a broader approach of DFIs to labour standards as distinct from development goals. This outlook is symptomatic of a general contempt for labour interests among DFIs which is otherwise illustrated by the fact that none of them require the board to include a workers’ representative.

In light of these findings, the current performance of DFIs is unsatisfactory. Examples of best practice can lead the way to a sustainable approach to the use of financial tools for development.

The full report is available here: EN FR ES

The full case studies are available here:

Source: ITUC http://www.ituc-csi.org/DFI-study

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Young leaders to have their say at the European Development Days #EDD16

Meet Karsten Weitzenegger at eudevdays.eu

15-16 JUNE 2016 / Tour & Taxis / Brussels

Young people from around the world, aged 21 to 26 are invited to join the debate on the future of international development cooperation at the next edition of European Development Days (EDD 2016). Europe’s leading forum on global development cooperation will take place in Brussels on 15 th  and 16 th  June.

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A call for Young Leaders worldwide

EU Commissioner for International Cooperation and Development, Neven Mimica, said: “Young people must be at the heart of the global  development efforts. It is about their future life, their future, their planet. Through this initiative, the European Commission wants to value the critical contribution that young people  are making and to involve them in shaping the future development policies.”

Sustainable Development Goals in action

This year’s forum – Sustainable Development Goals in Action: Our World, Our Dignity, Our Future – will focus on the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at the heart
of the United Nation’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. To achieve the SDGs, the international community will have to include young people as they work together to build a more sustainable future.

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EU: Culture can play a crucial role in strengthening international partnerships

A new strategy to put culture at the heart of EU international relations Brussels, 8 June 2016 (EC) – The strategy adopted today is in line with the Commission’s priority to make the EU a stronger global actor. Culture can play a crucial role in strengthening international partnerships. The ‘Strategy for international cultural relations’ presented by the European Commission and the EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy aims at encouraging cultural cooperation between the EU and its partner countries and promoting a global order based on peace, the rule of law, freedom of expression, mutual understanding and respect for fundamental values. EU High Representative and Vice-President Federica Mogherini said: “Culture has to be part and parcel of our foreign policy. Culture is a powerful tool to build bridges between people, notably the young, and reinforce mutual understanding. It can also be an engine for economic and social […]

A new strategy to put culture at the heart of EU international relations

Brussels, 8 June 2016 (EC) – The strategy adopted today is in line with the Commission’s priority to make the EU a stronger global actor. Culture can play a crucial role in strengthening international partnerships.

The ‘Strategy for international cultural relations’ presented by the European Commission and the EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy aims at encouraging cultural cooperation between the EU and its partner countries and promoting a global order based on peace, the rule of law, freedom of expression, mutual understanding and respect for fundamental values.

EU High Representative and Vice-President Federica Mogherini said: “Culture has to be part and parcel of our foreign policy. Culture is a powerful tool to build bridges between people, notably the young, and reinforce mutual understanding. It can also be an engine for economic and social development. As we face common challenges, culture can help all of us, in Europe, Africa, Middle East, Asia, stand together to fight radicalisation and build an alliance of civilisations against those trying to divide us. This is why cultural diplomacy must be at the core of our relationship with today’s world.”

European Commissioner for Education, Culture, Youth and Sport, Tibor Navracsics, said: “Culture is the hidden gem of our foreign policy. It helps to promote dialogue and mutual understanding. Culture is therefore crucial in building long-term relationships with countries across the whole world: it has a great role to play in making the EU a stronger global actor.”

European Commissioner for International Cooperation and Development, Neven Mimica, and Commissioner for European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations, Johannes Hahn, welcomed the Strategy, in line with the recently adopted 2030 Agenda acknowledging global citizenship, cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue as overarching principles of sustainable development and for the EU’s neighbourhood and enlargement policies.

Culture can play an important role in the EU’s foreign policy. Cultural cooperation counters stereotypes and prejudice by nurturing dialogue, open-mindedness, dignity and mutual respect. Inter-cultural dialogue can help prevent conflicts and foster reconciliation within and between countries. Culture can help respond to global challenges such as the integration of refugees, countering violent radicalisation and the protection of the world’s cultural heritage. Culture can also be a tool to deliver important social and economic benefits both within and outside the EU.

Today’s Communication proposes a strategic framework for deeper and more effective international cultural relations as well as a new model for cooperation with Member States, national cultural institutes, private and public operators from the EU and its partner countries, increasing opportunities, creating synergies and maximising socio-economic benefits.

Culture is becoming more and more a vector for economic growth, not only in its traditional forms, but particularly through cultural and creative industries, SMEs and tourism. This strengthens the opinion that synergies with other fields are crucial and that public and private sector and civil society should be more and more involved.

Culture plays an important role also at municipal level. Engaging citizens, state actors and cultural operators alike, is a major resource for strengthening municipalities and communities and for developing market opportunities.

As such, this Communication is in line with the ninth priority outlined by European Commission President Juncker in his 2014 Political Guidelines and reflecting the ambition of the EU’s forthcoming Global Strategy being prepared by the High Representative. The Commission has also announced that it will propose to the European Parliament and the Council of the EU to organise a European Year of Cultural Heritage in 2018.

Background

Culture in EU external relations is one of the three pillars of the European Agenda for Culture (2007). Developing a strategic approach in this field has been a priority of the Council’s Work Plans for Culture since 2011. A major step forward was made with the European Parliament’s Preparatory Action “Culture in EU external relations” (2013-14), which highlighted the considerable potential for culture in Europe’s external relations and underlined that the European Union and its Member States stand to gain a great deal by better streamlining their cultural diplomacy.

In the cultural and creative sectors, the EU has already funded many projects such as creative hubs’ networks or the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Cultures+ programme and the programmes to support cultural governance and promote intercultural dialogue. The Creative Europe programme is also open to neighbourhood and enlargement countries. EU delegations regularly organise cultural diplomacy activities and EU development cooperation has long included culture and heritage in its actions (for example, to restore the Timbuktu manuscripts in Mali). The EU’s support to the Anna Lindh Foundation in the South Mediterranean serves as another good example of how culture will influence the EU’s foreign policy. The Young Arab Voices programme (now enlarged to the EuroMediterranean region), for instance, deepens the dialogue between young leaders and civil society representatives and develop counter-narratives to extremism and violent radicalisation. Another example is EU assistance to protect cultural heritage in Syria, implemented by UNESCO, supporting local stakeholders in monitoring the state of the heritage and in preserving the heritage and countering illicit trafficking. In the Eastern Partnership (EaP), the EaP Culture Programme is supporting the cultural and creative sectors’ contribution to sustainable humanitarian, social and economic development. At the same time, the “Community-Led Urban Strategies in Historic Towns” project seeks to stimulate social and economic development by enhancing cultural heritage in nine historic towns in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine

Horizon 2020 also supports research on cultural diplomacy and activities on cultural heritage through multinational, interdisciplinary projects. Future programmes are under preparation to support partner countries in different regions; namely fostering cultural and creative industries and promoting intercultural dialogue.

To help the EU implement the strategy and create synergies among all EU stakeholders (EU delegations, national cultural institutes and foundations, private and public enterprises, civil society), a Cultural Diplomacy Platform was set up in February 2016, focusing on strategic countries. Operated by a consortium of Member States’ Cultural Institutes and other partners, the Platform will deliver policy advice, facilitate networking, carry out activities with cultural stakeholders and develop training programmes for cultural leadership.

For more information

Communication on international cultural relations

Q&A on the Communication on international cultural relations

Speech by the EU High Representative and Vice President Federica Mogherini at the Cultural Forum

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OECD countries confirm their drive to improve gender equality in public leadership

OECD countries have strengthened their determination to work towards greater gender equality in public life – including in governments, parliaments and judiciaries – with concrete measures to improve women’s access to leadership and decision-making roles and integrate more of a gender perspective into public policies. The OECD Recommendation on Gender Equality in Public Life, launched on International Women’s Day and in the spirit of the UN Sustainable Development Goals, calls on member countries to ensure fair pay and equal opportunities for women and men at all levels of government, in parliaments, judiciaries and other public bodies, enacting pay equality laws where necessary. The Recommendation to member countries suggests measures such as introducing quotas or voluntary targets, parity laws, disclosure requirements and linking public funding for political parties to their gender ratios. It proposes setting objectives for gender equality with timelines, and penalties could be considered for non-compliance with regulations. Other […]

OECD countries have strengthened their determination to work towards greater gender equality in public life – including in governments, parliaments and judiciaries – with concrete measures to improve women’s access to leadership and decision-making roles and integrate more of a gender perspective into public policies.

The OECD Recommendation on Gender Equality in Public Life, launched on International Women’s Day and in the spirit of the UN Sustainable Development Goals, calls on member countries to ensure fair pay and equal opportunities for women and men at all levels of government, in parliaments, judiciaries and other public bodies, enacting pay equality laws where necessary.

The Recommendation to member countries suggests measures such as introducing quotas or voluntary targets, parity laws, disclosure requirements and linking public funding for political parties to their gender ratios. It proposes setting objectives for gender equality with timelines, and penalties could be considered for non-compliance with regulations.

Other actions recommended include rethinking traditional working hours to provide more flexibility for working mothers and offering incentives to men to take parental leave. Gender perspectives should be integrated into parliamentary practices, legislation and budgets.

“Empowering and encouraging women to take a bigger role in the public bodies that create laws and run public services is not only morally right but it is generally good for an institution’s performance, good for equality and good for improving trust in governments,” said OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría, launching the Recommendation at an OECD conference on women in leadership. “Achieving gender balance in public leadership will require a cultural change, but there are concrete measures we can take to speed up this process.”

Less than half of OECD countries have met the 30% level of female parliamentarians the United Nations recommends for women to effectively influence policy. On average, women held 29% of OECD parliament seats in 2015, up slightly from 23% in 2005. The share of women ministers was also 29%, versus 21% in 2005. (See the new OECD gender portal.)

Globally, women account for 6% of elected heads of state, little changed from 4% in 2005. (See complete interactive chart on women in parliament for 45 countries)

In non-OECD countries one Member of Parliament in five is a woman, with shares ranging from zero women in Haiti and Qatar to 63% female parliamentarians in Rwanda – which boasts the highest share of female MPs in the world.

The OECD’s SIGI gender index, which looks at women’s political voices across 160 countries, shows legislative quotas can make a difference, but negative stereotypes about female leadership must also be challenged. For example, even with quotas in place, women occupy less than 10% of parliamentary seats in Brazil, Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of the Congo, whereas Finland and Sweden have high levels of women but no quotas. (Full SIGI report on gender discrimination.)

In the corporate sector, women’s access to leadership positions also remains challenging, despite a growing consensus that tapping into the under-exploited talent pool of qualified women is good for companies’ performance. The G20/OECD Principles of Corporate Governance suggests using voluntary targets, disclosure requirements, boardroom quotas, and other initiatives to enhance gender diversity on boards and in senior management.

See the OECD gender portal: www.oecd.org/gender/data

More statistics on OECD governments: www.oecd.org/governance/govataglance.htm

Women in government: www.oecd.org/governance/women-in-government.htm

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2015 Human Development Report – Rethinking Work for Human Development

“Address challenges and seize opportunities of the new world of work”, UNDP urges

2 billion people lifted out of low human development, in last 25 years, now focus on work is needed to galvanize progress, alerts the 2015 Human Development Report.

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Addis Ababa, 14 December 2015 (UNDP) — Fast technological progress, deepening globalization, aging societies and environmental challenges are rapidly transforming what work means today and how it is performed. This new world of work presents great opportunities for some, but also profound challenges for others. The 2015 Human Development Report, released today at a ceremony in Ethiopia, urges governments to act now to ensure no one is left behind in the fast-changing world of work.

The report, titled ‘Work for Human Development’, calls for equitable and decent work for all. In doing so, it encourages governments to look beyond jobs to consider the many kinds of work, such as unpaid care, voluntary, or creative work that are important for human development. The report suggests that only by taking such a broad view can the benefits of work be truly harnessed for sustainable development.

Speaking at the launch, Prime Minister Hailemariam Dessalegn of the Federal Democratic
Republic of Ethiopia, said “Employment can be a great driver of progress, but more
people need to be able to benefit from sustainable work that helps them and their families
to thrive.”

The need for more inclusive and sustainable work opportunities was also emphasized by United Nations Development Programme Administrator Helen Clark who said: “Decent work contributes to both the richness of economies and the richness of human lives. All countries need to respond to the challenges in the new world of work and seize opportunities to improve lives and livelihoods.”

With better health and education outcomes and reductions in extreme poverty, 2 billion people have moved out of low human development levels in the last 25 years, the report says. Yet in rder to secure these gains and galvanize progress, a stronger focus on decent work is needed.

830 million people are classified as working poor who live on under $2.00 a day. Over 200 million people, including 74 million youth, are unemployed, while 21 million people are currently in forced labour.

“Human progress will accelerate when everyone who wants to work has the opportunity to do so under decent circumstances. Yet in many countries, people are often excluded from paid work, or are paid less than others for doing work of the same value”, said report lead author Selim Jahan.

Women do three out of every four hours of unpaid work

The report presents a detailed new estimate of the share of all work, not just paid work, between men and women. While women carry out 52 percent of all global work, glaring inequalities in the distribution of work remain.

Women are less likely to be paid for their work than men, with three out of every four hours of unpaid
work carried out by women. In contrast, men account for two of every three hours of paid work. Since
women often carry the burden of providing care services for family members, the report warns that this
disparity is likely to increase as populations age.

When women are paid, they earn globally, on average, 24 percent less than men, and occupy less than a
quarter of senior business positions worldwide.

“To reduce this inequality, societies need new policies, including better access to paid care services.
Ensuring equal pay, providing paid parental leave, and tackling the harassment and the social norms
that exclude so many women from paid work are among the changes needed. That would enable the burden of unpaid care work to be shared more widely, and give women a genuine choice on whether to
enter the labour force”, Helen Clark said.

Globalization and the digital revolution are double-edged swords

Globalization and technological changes are producing an increasingly polarized world of work. “There
has never been a better time to be a highly skilled worker. Conversely, it is not a good time to be unskilled. This is deepening inequalities”, said report author Selim Jahan.

Highly skilled workers and those with access to technology, including to the internet, have new
opportunities in the types of work available and the way that work is done. Today, there are seven billion mobile phone subscriptions, 2.3 billion people with smart phones, and 3.2 billion with internet access. This has brought about many changes in the world of work – for example, the rise of e-commerce and the mass outsourcing of banking, ICT-support, and other services. Despite new opportunities, however, more jobs are now becoming vulnerable and a wide digital divide remains, the report notes.

In 2015, 81 percent of households in developed countries have internet access, but only 34 percent in developing regions and 7 percent in the least developed countries have that access. Many types of outine work, such as clerical jobs, are predicted to disappear or be replaced by computers, or have already disappeared, the report warns, while many more workers face other insecurities. According to the International Labour Organization, 61 percent of employed people in the world work
without a contract, and only 27 percent of the world’s population is covered by comprehensive social
protection. The report calls on governments to formulate national employment strategies that take into account the many challenges emerging in the rapidly changing world of work.

Sustainable work, opportunities both for present and future generations

The report stresses the key roles that work can play in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.
“The types of work many of us do will need to change if our economies and societies are to make genuine
progress towards a low emission and climate-resilient future. These changes will influence what the
labour market of tomorrow looks like”, the report states. With green growth, new jobs will be created, the nature of others will be transformed, and others will end altogether. These changes ideally should be supported by systems of social protection and safety nets.

The report argues that work opportunities can be fostered by the global goals. It estimates, for
example, that around 45 million additional health workers will be needed to meet the health objectives of the Sustainable Development Goals. That would see the global health workforce increase in size from 34 million in 2012 to 79 million by 2030.

Setting the new agenda for work

While policy responses to the new world of work will differ across countries, three main clusters of
policies will be critical if governments and societies are to maximize the benefits and minimize the
hardships in the evolving new world of work. Strategies are needed for creating work opportunities and
ensuring workers’ well-being. The report therefore proposes a three-pronged action agenda:

  • A New Social Contract between governments, society, and the private sector, to ensure that
    all members of society, especially those working outside the formal sector, have their needs taken into account in policy formulation.
  • A Global Deal among governments to guarantee workers’ rights and benefits around the world.
  • A Decent Work Agenda, encompassing all workers, that will help promote freedom of association, equity, security, and human dignity in work life.
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OECD Development Co-operation Report 2015

Making Partnerships Effective Coalitions for Action With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals, the question of how to finance, implement and monitor these goals moves to the centre of the debate. Today, international development co-operation takes place in an increasingly complex environment, with an ever growing number of actors, policies and instruments involved. This complexity raises the stakes for achieving the goals, but also opens up new opportunities. Although governments will remain the key actors in the implementation of the new post-2015 goals, the role of non-state actors such as civil society, foundations and business is growing. Their association through effective partnerships will be key to the implementation of the post-2015 agenda. The Development Co-operation Report 2015 explores the potential of networks and partnerships to create incentives for responsible action, as well as innovative, fit-for-purpose ways of co-ordinating the activities of diverse stakeholders. The report – Making Partnerships Effective […]

Making Partnerships Effective Coalitions for Action

With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals, the question of how to finance, implement and monitor these goals moves to the centre of the debate. Today, international development co-operation takes place in an increasingly complex environment, with an ever growing number of actors, policies and instruments involved. This complexity raises the stakes for achieving the goals, but also opens up new opportunities. Although governments will remain the key actors in the implementation of the new post-2015 goals, the role of non-state actors such as civil society, foundations and business is growing. Their association through effective partnerships will be key to the implementation of the post-2015 agenda.

The Development Co-operation Report 2015 explores the potential of networks and partnerships to create incentives for responsible action, as well as innovative, fit-for-purpose ways of co-ordinating the activities of diverse stakeholders. The report – Making Partnerships Effective Coalitions for Action – looks at a number of existing partnerships working in diverse sectors, countries and regions to draw lessons and provide practical guidance, proposing ten success factors for post-2015 partnerships. A number of leading policy makers and politicians share their insights and views.

Summary [German version]

The development efforts made by the international community over the past 60 years have had measurable impact on reducing poverty, improving human health and tackling other pressing challenges. Yet fragmented initiatives, conflicting priorities and uncoordinated approaches continue to hold back progress.

At the same time, in our increasingly interconnected and globalised world, national boundaries are blurring; the notion of state sovereignty that underpinned traditional forms of international co‑operation is increasingly challenged.

The need for co‑ordinated action is more urgent than ever. The United Nations has led the formulation of 17 ambitious, universal and far‑reaching Sustainable Development Goals to be achieved by 2030. Improved and expanded international co‑operation, within a system of global governance underpinned by appropriate mechanisms of mutual accountability, will be essential to achieve these goals.

Partnerships are powerful drivers of development

While most agree that partnerships are crucial for driving collective action to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, the term “partnerships” encompasses diverse approaches, structures and purposes, making it difficult – if not impossible – to generalise about them.

At the same time, while universal in nature and applicable to all countries, the Sustainable Development Goals are founded on the respect for diversity – of contexts, needs, capabilities, policies and priorities, among others. To be effective, it is essential that partnerships addressing these global goals be driven by the priorities of the individual countries.

Within this context, three guiding principles can help to realise the full potential of partnerships post‑2015:

1 ‑ Accountable action . Accountability means being responsible for one’s action or inaction and, in the latter case, accepting potential sanctions for lack of compliance with commitments. Although accountability provided by governments will remain at the core of post‑2015 action, today’s development partnerships bring together a range of stakeholders: national governments, parliaments, civil society, philanthropies, multilateral organisations, businesses and many others – not least among them the communities affected by development initiatives. While drawing on common development effectiveness principles, many of today’s accountability frameworks are founded on the recognition that different stakeholders may approach a common development agenda in different ways. This recognition builds trust andmutual respect, two characteristics that are at the core of accountability. So how do we manage accountability within the increasing complexity of international co‑operation? New ways of holding each other to account are needed, in combination with measurable commitments and standards that are continually reviewed and updated to keep them relevant and responsive, and to maintain shared commitment and political momentum. It is also fundamental to ensure that all partners are represented within governance mechanisms and that all voices are heard.

2 ‑ Co‑ordinated and effective action . With the growing diversity of partners involved in development co‑operation, it is more important than ever to avoid duplication of effort and fragmentation – problems that have long challenged the effectiveness of development co‑operation. While effective action post‑2015 can be greatly facilitated by focusing partnerships on specific issues or sectors – such as health, education and sustainable energy – this does not mean that more and bigger partnerships are the best solution; experience demonstrates that this can actually hinder rather than promote progress. Streamlined partnerships – integrating existing actors and structures – reduce fragmented or overlapping action and ease the reporting and administrative burden on developing countries, thereby improving both delivery and impact. Partnerships – including between the public and private sectors – can also help take solutions to scale, expanding the reach of development solutions to large numbers of beneficiaries in ways that individual governments, businesses or philanthropies are usually not capable of doing on their own. Finally – but by no means least important – strong, committed leadership gives partnerships the momentum they need to tackle complex development challenges, stay on course and mobilise the human and financial resources required to get the job done.

3 ‑ Experience‑based action . The reform of global development co‑operation to meet today’s development challenges calls for changes in behaviour and mind‑sets. Dialogue and learning from experience are essential to produce these changes. The 11 case stories included in this report represent diverse partnership experiences and approaches, yet there is at least one thing all of them share: an emphasis on the importance of learning from experience, knowledge sharing and the distillation of lessons and good practice. South‑South co‑operation is an important vehicle for knowledge sharing, enabling countries to apply lessons taken directly from the experience of others to inform their own policies and programmes. Accountability mechanisms contribute to learning from experience, enhancing the quality of development co‑operation to improve its impact and relevance. These mechanisms range from peer reviews that focus on how development co‑operation is framed, managed and delivered, to monitoring, reporting and evaluation cycles that are used to support continuing adaptation.

Post‑2015 partnerships will bring new and evolving roles

Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals will require strong involvement by many actors, including:

the private sector, for job creation, technology development and investment
civil society for holding development co‑operation partners to account, pushing for action on national and global commitments and scrutiny to ensure productive and accountable investment of public resources.

This implies a changing role for governments, which have traditionally been seen as the main providers of finance for development.

A policy framework for post‑2015 partnerships

The Development Co‑operation Report 2015 explores the role of partnerships in providing the necessary balance of sovereignty and subsidiarity, of inclusiveness and differentiation, of coherence and specialisation for delivering the Sustainable Development Goals. Drawing lessons from experience, it proposes ten success factors that provide an implementation and monitoring framework for making partnerships effective coalitions for action:

1. Secure high‑level leadership.
2. Ensure partnerships are country‑led and context‑specific.
3. Avoid duplication of effort and fragmentation.
4. Make governance inclusive and transparent.
5. Apply the right type of partnership model for the challenge.
6. Agree on principles, targets, implementation plans and enforcement mechanisms.
7. Clarify roles and responsibilities.
8. Maintain a clear focus on results.
9. Measure and monitor progress towards goals and targets.
10. Mobilise the required financial resources and use them effectively.

Get the Report at
http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/development/development-co-operation-report-2015_dcr-2015-en