October 2006 from weitzenegger.de

This monthly Newsletter brings you news for international co-operation professionals on economic and social development. Edited by Karsten Weitzenegger, http://www.weitzenegger.de

See also our newsfeed on Post-Conflict Economies


Special Edition on Post-conflict economies

  1. Conference: Private Sector Development and Peacebuilding
  2. Organisations and Websites
  3. Training Events and Learning Materials
  4. Publications and Tools

New PeaceBusiness Yahoo Group
We have created a mega-list that distributes various news on private sector development in economies affected by conflict. You can join and read at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/peacebusiness/
There is much traffic, so better select the 'read online' option. If you want to contribute information to this community, please send to peacebusiness @ yahoogroups.com. Really relevant newsletters for the topic are welcome!


1. Conference: Private Sector Development and Peacebuilding

BMZ, DiFD, GTZ and International Alert organized an international conference on 'Private Sector Development and Peacebuilding – Exploring Local and International Perspectives' in Berlin on the 14/15 September 2006. During these two days some 140 experts in the fields of private sector development (PSD) and peacebuilding, representing various foreign offices and donor agencies as well as NGOs, research institutions and the private sector discussed how to promote a private sector role in peacebuilding, PSD in conflict and post-conflict situations. Discussions also explored how to integrate the two disciplines of PSD and peacebuilding to develop conflict-sensitive and peacebuilding PSD interventions. This was the first international conference of its kind to consider these topics, therefore, the format of the event focused on exchange of experiences, reflecting the high demand for knowledge transfer, rather than technically oriented workshops. The event had the following main objectives:
- to highlight the domestic private sector’s potential to contribute to peacebuilding in conflict-affected countries;
- to highlight emerging international experience in private sector development (PSD) programming at a country-level; and
- to facilitate cross-learning between peacebuilding and PSD practitioners.

This conference reflected the emerging international debate on the best means of encouraging private sector development in high-risk economies and ensuring that it has a positive rather than a negative impact. Private sector development is critically important for the long-term economic recovery of economies affected by conflict. Domestic and international businesses have important roles to play in this effort. However, the private sector is not in itself a panacea. Companies and entrepreneurs will not take the considerable risks of investing without appropriate economic incentives. Moreover, poorly planned commercial development may widen existing social and political divisions, thus contributing to conflict rather than peace.

There is growing acknowledgement that although often bound up with conflict dynamics, local business actors can also have an interest in securing peace. To date however, the domestic private sector’s peacebuilding potential has not been well understood. A body of research commissioned by International Alert shows that different types of businesses – acting alone or through partnership and coalition – have taken creative steps towards promoting peace and stability locally. From the peace process onwards, the window of opportunity obtained after a peace settlement should provide a focus for collaboration on priority reforms in the enabling environment for investment, reconstruction and job creation. Getting the timing of reforms right and sequencing interventions is essential. For donors and development agencies there is much to be learned from sharing experiences on how to integrate a role for the private sector around peace-building and growth.

Policy research and response into ‘war economies’ have largely focused on the links between natural resource commodity exploitation, the economic agendas of state and non-state armed groups, as well as the potentially negative impacts of foreign investment and company practices. The ’business and conflict’ debate has led to important international policy developments, for example the development of new standards of business conduct, curtailing trade in ‘conflict commodities’, countering the 'resource curse', and tighter controls on laundering the proceeds of corruption.

Meanwhile there is growing acknowledgement that although often bound up with conflict dynamics, local as well as international business actors can also have an interest in securing peace. To date however, the domestic private sector’s potential to contribute to peace has not been well understood. One aim of the conference is therefore to highlight a local business perspective on peace and conflict by drawing on recent research in over 20 countries affected by or emerging from conflict.

Furthermore, for donors and development agencies there is much to be learned from sharing experiences on how to integrate a role for the private sector around peacebuilding and growth immediately post-conflict. In these situations, there are real opportunities for changes in policies and institutions that affect the private sector and experience shows that there is a role for the domestic private sector in crisis prevention and growth. International support for this should start from the peace process onwards, and the window of opportunity obtained after a peace settlement should provide a focus for collaboration on priority reforms in the enabling environment for investment and reconstruction. Therefore a further aim of the conference is to highlight emerging donor experience in private sector development programming at a country level, drawing on specific cases where there is ongoing conflict, and in post-conflict countries.

All conference documents, including summaries from the breakout sessions, are now uploaded on the Business Environment Website:


2. Organisations and Websites

Improving the Business Environment for Small Enterprises: Inter-agency information exchange
This site hosts the database of the Donor Committee's Business Environment Working Group - for sharing documents and information about donor-supported work to enhance the business environment to achieve pro-poor growth. A unique feature of this site is a focus on aspects of the Business Environment that discriminate against small firms; it also covers the overall approaches of governments to SME policies and institutions.

Economic Impacts of Peacekeeping Library
The Economic Impacts of Peacekeeping Library is a collection of articles, reports, abstracts and book summaries that span across the existing literature on economic aspects of peace operations. The library includes materials used in the EIP literature review, and a variety of additional sources including academic, governmental, and non-governmental items.

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
GTZ provides viable, forward-looking solutions for political, economic, ecological and social development in a globalised world. GTZ therefore places importance on systematically anchoring crisis prevention as a cross-cutting theme in the various activity areas of German Development Cooperation. One key feature is the further development of practice-relevant concepts and instruments for integrating crisis prevention, conflict transformation and peace development into the work of German Development Cooperation. From a development cooperation perspective, the economy plays a key role in societies afflicted by conflict. Certain transnational corporations – known as ''war profiteers'' – make a practice of exploiting conflict situations: they fuel crises or hinder resolution. These enterprises work against the interests of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), which depend on peaceful and stable framework conditions and often cannot survive conflicts. It is particularly the SMEs that are vital for peaceful employment and growth. The task of Private Sector Development (PSD) is, in this complex and charged situation, to identify measures that support the kind of economic structures that foster reconstruction, without unintentionally lending support to war profiteers.

Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development of Germany
In 2005, the BMZ passed ‘a sector strategy for crisis-prevention, conflict transformation and peace-building’, framing crisis prevention as a cross-cutting issue for German development cooperation. Correspondingly, German development agencies are in the process of mainstreaming crisis prevention in all development measures. BMZ has furthermore commissioned GTZ to elaborate on the subject of ‘Private Sector Development (PSD) in conflict regions’ as part of its sector project ‘innovative tools for PSD’. The project has worked on tools for conflict-sensitive PSD programme planning and implementation as well as on formulating good practice PSD in reconstruction and reintegration programmes. Case studies have been developed with PSD programmes in Afghanistan, Kosovo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Caucasus, Nepal and Sierra Leone.

International Alert. Understanding conflict. Building peace.
International Alert is an independent peacebuilding organisation working in over 20 countries and territories around the world. Our dual approach involves working directly with people affected by violent conflict as well as at government, EU and UN levels to shape both policy and practice in building sustainable peace. International Alert’s experience in conflict-affected countries has shown that the domestic private sector can be an invaluable partner in the peacebuilding process. In July 2006, Alert published Local Business, Local Peace: the Peacebuilding Potential of the Domestic Private Sector, with financial support from the UK Department for International Development; the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development; the German Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit; and the United States Agency for International Development of the United States Government. Developed and researched with partner organisations and businesspeople from conflict-affected countries around the world, it presents more than 20 case studies of business actors taking steps to address violent conflict and its impacts. The study highlights their efforts to support peace processes; to address socio-economic issues that can fuel violent conflict; to build bridges between divided communities and groups; and to alleviate security concerns. It also draws attention to the special role of women entrepreneurs. Alert hopes that this body of research will constitute a valuable resource for local business leaders, peacebuilding practitioners and development agencies alike.

DFID - United Kingdom Department for International Development
DFID recognises that growth is especially important after conflict and where the state is weak. The private sector in fragile states can create jobs and provide some services when governments are not able to. Re-establishing a favourable investment climate can be difficult. Getting the timing of reforms right and rebuilding basic infrastructure is essential. Sometimes, just getting the macro economy under control can attract large-scale investment. The UK believes that growth is the ‘exit strategy’ for aid. To reduce poverty quickly, international partners need to put growth at the heart of their relationships with developing countries. Multilateral and bilateral donors can support growth and macroeconomic stability by providing advice and financial support to countries, and by co-operating closely with the international and local private sector. We hope that this conference provides an opportunity to share and learn lessons on how to more effectively support a positive role for the private sector in conflict-affected countries.

The UN Peacebuilding Portal
New peacebuilding tool made available by the United Nations which acts a resource and acts as a catalyst for private sector development to tap into the right peacebuilding networks and organizations. The Portal's mission is to empower civil society and organizations working for peace to share information, network and strengthen their work within their communities, their country, and with the UN. (Contributed by Louise Agersnap)

Creating jobs and working towards peace
Beasley, K.W. / US Agency for International Development (USAID) , 2006
This paper discusses the main justifications for job creation projects after serious conflict, both short- and longer-term. It reviews some major lessons learned and best practices to guide their design and implementation.

ILO’s InFocus Programme on Crisis Response and Reconstruction (IFP/CRISIS)
A key activity of ILO/CRISIS is the wide dissemination of information useful to crisis practitioners. The programme strives to bring the employment dimension of crises to the attention of ILO staff, other UN organizations, ILO tripartite constituents, civil society, donors, media outlets, and the public. More specifically, it works to ensure that practitioners have flexible, ready-to-use tools at their disposal when a crisis erupts.

UNDP Crisis Prevention and Recovery
The Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery (BCPR) is one of nine major bureaus within the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Consistent with UNDP’s mission to promote sustainable human development, the focus is on the development dimension of crisis situations. Currently developing a new website for Crisis Prevention and Recovery (CPR) information, which will be available in October 2006.

World Bank: Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction
The Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction Unit works to design development efforts specific to conflict-affected countries. The Post-Conflict Fund provides financing for physical and social reconstruction initiatives in post-war societies. The Bank is playing a significant role in Afghanistan, Africa's Great Lakes region, the Balkans, Iraq, Liberia, Nepal, Sierra Leone, Timor Leste, the West Bank and Gaza, and other war-torn areas.

Private Sector Development Blog: Post conflict
The PSD Blog gathers together news, resources and ideas about the role of private enterprise in fighting poverty. The bloggers are members of the World Bank Group.

The OECD DAC Network on Conflict, Peace and Development Co-operation (CPDC)
CPDC is the international forum that brings together conflict prevention and peace-building experts from bilateral and multilateral development agencies, including from the UN system, EC, IMF and World Bank. These experts meet to define and develop common approaches in support of peace. The CPDC is a subsidiary group of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC).

Conflict Prevention and Post-Conflict Reconstruction (CPR) Network
The CPR Network is an informal network of donor countries and partner UN Agencies dealing with the complex issues of conflict management. It arose out of an interest by DAC members of the Conflict, Peace and Development Cooperation Task Force to continue the process of sharing knowledge and experience in field operations that could serve as a guide to those working in conflict prevention and post-conflict reconstruction (CPR).

The Global Partnership
The Global Partnership is an international network of organisations working in conflict prevention and peacebuilding worldwide. The Partnership is organised into 15 regions, each with a Regional Initiator or lead organisation, who steers the regional process of network-building and coordinates the development of a Regional Action Agenda on conflict prevention. The global process is led by the International Steering Group (ISG), composed of Regional Initiators and a select group of other parties. The European Centre for Conflict Prevention acts as secretariat.

Transcend: A Peace and Development Network
Research and Training Network for Conflict Transformation by Peaceful means, founded and led by Johan Galtung. Hosting Training Programmes and the TRANSCEND Peace University.

Working Group on Development and Peace (FriEnt)
FriEnt is an association of seven German governmental and non-governmental organisations, with the main objective to promote peace building in all areas of development cooperation. To this end, FriEnt's core activities include fostering joint learning, capacity building, advice and supporting networking and co-operation of its members.

Business & Human Rights Resource Centre
Network to promote greater awareness and informed discussion of important issues relating to business and human rights. Contains many reports on Global Compact partners and their violations of the principles of this scheme and/or criticism of their participation. The website includes reports of corporate misconduct, as well as positive examples of ''best practice'' by companies. The website is composed of links to a wide range of materials published by: NGOs; companies & business organisations; United Nations, ILO & other intergovernmental organisations; governments & courts; policy experts & academics; social investment analysts; journalists; etc.

DFAIT - Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade
Information on projects in Afghanistan (post-war reconstruction). Under ''Global Issues, peace & Security'' you can find more information on disarmament, international law, peace-keeping measures and post-conflict Iraq.

Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative
The EITI supports improved governance in resource-rich countries through the full publication and verification of company payments and government revenues from oil, gas and mining. Many countries are rich in oil, gas, and minerals and studies have shown that when governance is good, these can generate large revenues to foster economic growth and reduce poverty. However when governance is weak, they may instead cause poverty, corruption, and conflict – the so called ''resource curse”. The EITI aims to defeat this ''curse” by improving transparency and accountability.

The Kimberley Process on conflict diamonds
The Kimberley Process is a joint government, international diamond industry and civil society initiative to stem the flow of conflict diamonds - rough diamonds that are used by rebel movements to finance wars against legitimate governments.

Peace Dividend Trust (PDT)
A non-profit foundation incorporated in Canada and the United Kingdom. Works to make peace and humanitarian operations more efficient, effective and equitable, delivering a stronger peace and a larger peace dividend.

Corporate Engagement Project
The Collaborative for Development Action (CDA) is a consulting agency that has worked extensively with humanitarian agencies in conflict or post-conflict situations. The agency’s Corporate Engagement Project (CEP) addresses the special concerns of multinational corporations in conflict-affected areas. It develops practical management tools to promote positive relationships between companies and localities. The Web site includes articles on best practices and case studies based on fieldwork with mining, petroleum, and construction companies in Papua New Guinea, Cameroon, Myanmar, and Mozambique. A series of CEP issue papers discuss conflict risk mitigation strategies, with sections on operational activities, stakeholder engagement, and corporate culture.

Zentrum für Internationale Friedenseinsätze (Center for International Peace Operations - ZIF)
ZIF was established by the German Federal Government in June 2002 with the aim of enhancing Germany’s civilian crisis prevention capacities. ZIF’s core mandate is the training, recruitment, and support of German civilian personnel for peace operations and election observation missions conducted in particular by the OSCE, the EU, and the UN.

Danish Portal Promotes Investment in Developing Countries
A free portal established in partnership between Global Advice Network, Transparency International and Danida will help businesses investing in developing countries avoid corruption. The portal contains practical tools for businesses, including sector-specific corruption levels.

Afghanistan's Peace Dividend Marketplace
The Peace Dividend Marketplace project is designed to support private sector development by harnessing the existing operational spending of international agencies and companies by linking their large procurement needs to local suppliers. By encouraging international agencies to increase their local procurement, millions of dollars can be channeled into Afghanistan's economy.

swisspeace - the "Swiss Peace Foundation
swisspeace is an action-oriented peace-research institute in the area of conflict analysis and peacebuilding. We research the causes of wars and violent conflicts, develop tools for early recognition of tensions, and formulate conflict mitigation and peacebuilding strategies.
swisspeace was founded in 1988

Economic reconstruction and development in South-East Europe
A European Commission / World Bank initiative to provide a real-time working tool and help donors identify the current situation in South-East Europe and the macroeconomic needs of the countries. Also provides an additional way for donors to coordinate their assistance.

Transition International
Netherlands-based, international consultancy firm with a network of senior consultants around the world. We are specialised in tackling the challenges of transitions. We promote change for the better through sharing knowledge, training and advisory services. (Contributed by Irma Specht)

Households in Conflict Network (HiCN)
The HiCN brings together researchers interested in the micro-economic and econometric analysis of the relationship between violent conflict and household behaviour. The purpose of the HiCN is to undertake collaborative research into the causes and effects of violent conflict at the household level. (Contributed by Tilman Brück)

International Relations and Security Network (ISN)
The ISN is a free public service that provides a wide range of high-quality and comprehensive products and resources to encourage the exchange of information among international relations and security professionals worldwide. Based in Zurich, Switzerland, at the Center for Security Studies (CSS) at ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich), the ISN’s dedicated team – drawn from various disciplines, including the humanities, the social sciences, and information and communication technology – engage in research projects and education activities, provide news stories and in-depth analyses, and develop technologies for information sharing and for creating and supporting e-learning.

Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights
This site is designed to raise awareness of the Voluntary Principles, which have been developed to guide companies in balancing the needs for safety while respecting human rights and fundamental freedoms. (Contributed by John Bray)

Global Business Network
Based in the San Francisco Bay Area, Global Business Network was founded in 1987 as a unique learning community based on ruthless curiosity, collaboration, and powerful new tools for thinking about and shaping the future.


3. Training Events and Learning Materials

ALNAP Active Learning Network for Accountability and Performance in Humanitarian Assistance
ALNAP was established in 1997, following the multi-agency evaluation of the Rwanda genocide. It is a collective response by the humanitarian sector, dedicated to improving humanitarian performance through increased learning and accountability. The Evaluative Reports Database (ERD) is ALNAP’s key tool to facilitate information-sharing and lesson learning amongst humanitarian organisations.

ReliefWeb Training
United Nations website providing information to humanitarian relief organizations. Updated daily. Links to training and materials.

AGEG training workshop Security Awareness – Operating in Unstable Environments
Germany, Kirchheim/Teck, 11-13 October 2006, AGEG Consultants eG
This seminar aims at minimizing the risk of the involved international experts by a sensitizing for safety issues as well as by providing ''hands on” security strategies and tools. When acting in unstable environments, it is essential to develop security awareness and have at one’s disposal an appropriate set of security mechanisms, while avoiding exaggerated safeguarding at the same time. Fee: Euro 580. Info: Simona Scheibitz, Phone: +49-7021-97087-21, s.scheibitz @ ageg.de

Online Course: Peace and Business
The general aim of this course is to empower the participants to further their own personal contributions to building the economic infrastructure of a peaceful world either through their direct involvement in economic activities or through their engagement with other economic actors. At the TRANSCEND Peace University, the world's on-line university for peace and development studies.

Certificate Course in Conflict Analysis
This self-study course in conflict analysis is the first in a series that will eventually include courses in negotiation, mediation and other activities related to conflict management—all available online.

Online Course: Transforming Civil Conflict
Together with the Centre for Conflict Resolution, Department of Peace Studies in Bradford UK the Network University offers this four-week certificate course in Conflict Resolution five times a year. The aim of the program is to help prepare participants for work in conflict areas or to make their work there more effective: by giving them more insight into the processes in conflicts and the roles of different organisations.

Responsibility to Protect: Perspectives of the South and the North
FriEnt-Workshop, 17.10.2006, Bonn, Germany

International Conference: Poverty Reduction in Conflict and Fragile States:
Perspectives from a Household Level
November 8-9, 2006, Washington D.C., United States

''Master in Peace & Conflict Studies'' in Germany
''Master of Peace and Security Studies - M.P.S.'' - Institut für Friedensforschung und Sicherheitspolitik an der Universität Hamburg (IFSH):
Masterstudiengang ''Friedensforschung und internationale Politik'' – Universität Tübingen:
''Master of Peace Studies'' – Weiterbildungsstudiengang an der FernUni Hagen: http://www.fernuni-hagen.de/FRIEDEN
Masterstudiengang ''Friedens- und Konfliktforschung'' an der Universität Magdeburg: http://www.uni-magdeburg.de/ipw/fkf/index.html
''Internationale Studien/Friedens- und Konfliktforschung'' – Masterstudiengang an der Universität Frankfurt: http://www.gesellschaftswissenschaften.uni-frankfurt.de
Nebenfach Friedens- und Konfliktforschung sowie Master of Peace- and Conflict Studies an der Philipps-Universität Marburg: http://www.uni-marburg.de/konfliktforschung

Humanitarian Distance Learning Centre
HDLS is an innovative training portal designed to support the global relief and development community.

International Peace Academy
Information on the issue of conflict prevention (a project of the International Peace Academy) as well as on ''Greed and Grievance – Economic Agendas in Civil Wars''. Also other downloads and seminar reports.

Good Practices Training Manual
by The Alliance for Rights and Tolerance, Kosovo 2002

Guidelines for employment and skills training in conflict-affected countries
The document analyzes, in a succinct form, some of the key issues to be taken into account and provides specific programme guidelines. In addition, it attempts to spell out ILO's potential actions. International Labour Office, Training Policies and Systems Branch Geneva December 1997.

Manual: Guidelines for establishing Emergency Public Employment Services
Employment services are a pivotal element of labour markets, in building bridges between job seekers and employment opportunities. This role becomes essential in the aftermath of crises, when changes in labour supply and demand are larger, occur at a faster pace, and needs are pressing, particularly from job seekers’ viewpoint. Yet in emergencies employment services often tend to be overlooked, and even when some capacity already exists, they may not be adapted to the post-crisis environment. This manual provides easy to use guidance to ILO staff, constituents, partners and other actors involved in crisis response, on how to set up effective and efficient emergency employment services in post-crisis contexts.

Business and decent work in conflict zones: A ''why?'' and ''how?'' guide
This short guide by Loretta de Luca is to support companies – large and small, national and international – that are operating or envisaging to operate in areas ridden by tensions and conflict. It offers them practical tips to build up a more peaceful and productive environment within the company itself and in its surrounding context, based on the ILO’s Decent Work approach. It should thus enable companies to play an important peace-building role and benefit from it.

Rebuilding Infrastructure: Policy Options for Attracting Private Funds after Conflict
Postconflict countries have had difficulty attracting private investment in infrastructure, and their growth and stability have suffered as a result. But the success of a few countries hints at policy initiatives that governments could pursue to close this destabilizing gap in investment. The emphasis should be on making sure that sector reforms go far enough, getting the timing and sequencing of the reforms right, reducing investor risk, and recognizing the importance of small-scale providers. Public Policy Journal Issue 306.

The DAC Guidelines Helping Prevent Violent Conflict
This publication presents the full range of DAC guidance on conflict prevention in one volume. Part I, Helping Prevent Violent Conflict: Orientations for External Partners, includes the 2001 Ministerial Statement and Supplement. Part II, Conflict, Peace and Development Co-operation on the Threshold of the 21st Century comprises the first Policy Statement and guidelines.

OECD Risk Awareness Tool for Multinational Enterprises in Weak Governance Zones
The OECD Risk Awareness Tool for Multinational Enterprises in Weak Governance Zones aims to help companies that invest in countries where governments are unwilling or unable to assume their responsibilities. It addresses risks and ethical dilemmas that companies are likely to face in such weak governance zones, including obeying the law and observing international instruments, heightened care in managing investments, knowing business partners and clients and dealing with public sector officials, and speaking out about wrongdoing.

The Do No Harm Handbook (The Framework for Analyzing the Impact of Assistance on Conflict)
The DO NO HARM ''Analytical Framework” was developed from the programming experience of many assistance workers. It provides a tool for mapping the interactions of assistance and conflict and can be used to plan, monitor and evaluate both humanitarian and development assistance programmes. The Do No Harm Handbook is a collection of short papers on the Framework and its use. The sections were written by or adapted from writings by Mary B. Anderson, Wolfgang Heinrich, Stephen Jackson, and Marshall Wallace. A project of the Collaborative for Development Action, Inc. and CDA Collaborative Learning Projects

Best-Practice Guide for a Positive Business and Investment Climate, OSCE 2006
The principal objective of this Guide is to assist OSCE countries in their efforts to improve the business climate and promote domestic and foreign investment. Rather than being technical in character, the Guide focuses on practical recommendations that are comprehensible not only to experts and academics but also to policymakers, officials and opinion-makers.

Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation
In response to the contemporary challenges of violent conflict and to recent developments in the field of conflict transformation, the Berghof Center has taken the initiative to produce this Handbook. This project is based on the conviction that responding constructively to inter-group conflicts requires more ingenuity, creativity and hard work than has been invested into this area so far.


4. Publications and Tools

A framework for private sector promotion in post-conflict environments
MacDonald, M.H. / Deutsche Gessellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) , 2006
This paper develops a framework for private sector promotion in post-conflict environments. In order to develop the framework, the paper investigates the evidence linking economic development and conflict, examines private sector development tools used also in non-conflict circumstances, and finally presents a brief survey on current approaches to emergency aid, reconstruction and reintegration programmes.

Prevention and Peace Building Elements of PSD/SED Programmes
This new GTZ discussion paper by Axel Mierke examines the potential that SED/PSD interventions have in contributing to conflict prevention and peace building. The paper is based on desk research, discussions with practitioners and three case studies. Practical experiences extracted from case studies and other reports illustrate the findings. The Annex provides details on the case studies of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), Kosovo and Afghanistan. (Contributed by Axel Mierke)

GTZ Reading List: Business in conflict
On this page you will find downloads, information and literature for further research on business in conflict.

Reading List: Private Sector Development in Conflict-Affected Countries, by The World Bank
Private sector development is critically important for the long-term economic recovery of economies affected by conflict. Domestic and international businesses have important roles to play in this effort. However, the private sector is not in itself a panacea. Companies and entrepreneurs will not take the considerable risks of investing without appropriate economic incentives. Moreover, poorly planned commercial development may widen existing social and political divisions, thus contributing to conflict rather than peace. This reading list reviews the emerging international debate on the best means of encouraging private sector development in high-risk economies and ensuring that it has a positive rather than a negative impact.

Reading List: Microfinance in Post-Conflict Environments
Microfinance is becoming one of the main sources of credit for small and medium enterprises, which in turn are likely to be among the main drivers of local economic development in post-conflict environments. This Web site gives references and commentaries on 16 case studies in countries ranging from Timor Leste to Cambodia, Liberia, Kosovo, Eritrea, Angola, Mozambique, Nepal, and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Eldis Reading List: Post Conflict Reconstruction
Eldis Reading List: Political Economy of War
The Conflict and Security Guide of Eldis has a special sections on more topics.

ILO Global Report: Employment in Response to Crises, May 2006
This report concludes the research project on ''Strengthening Employment in Response to Crises” jointly led by the Graduate Institute of International Studies (HEI) of Geneva and the International Labour Organization.

Sector strategy for crisis prevention, conflict transformation and peace-building in German development cooperation
German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development strategy for peace-building, June 2005

Local Business, Local Peace: The Peacebuilding Potential of the Domestic Private Sector
This International Alert publication highlights the domestic private sector’s often overlooked peacebuilding potential. Developed and researched with partner organisations and business people from conflict-affected countries around the world, it presents more than 20 case studies where private sector actors have taken proactive steps to address violent conflict in places as varied as Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Colombia, Guatemala, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Somalia and the South Caucasus. In addition, the publication highlights businesses’ efforts to support formal peace processes; to address issues in the economic sphere; to build bridges between divided communities and groups; to alleviate security concerns; as well as the special role of women entrepreneurs.

Business Guide for Conflict Impact Assessment and Risk Management
This Global Compact Guide aims to aid companies in developing strategies that minimize the negative effects and maximize the positive effects of investing in areas of conflict or potential conflict. The ultimate goal of the Guide is to help companies contribute to conflict prevention and a sustainable business environment in the countries where they operate. (Contributed by John Bray)

Enabling Economies of Peace. Public Policy for Conflict-Sensitive Business
This report by Karen Ballentine and Virginia Haufler discusses how governments and international organizations can better assist private sector efforts to promote conflict-sensitive business practices. (Contributed by John Bray)

Business of Peace
This 158 page publication of the International Business Leaders Forum
explores the role that the business sector can play in conflict prevention and resolution. 2000 – but still influential. (Contributed by John Bray)

Development, Peace and Human Rights in Colombia: a Business Agenda (2006)
IBLF, in association with the UN Global Compact and local partner Fundación Ideas para la Paz, this week brought together senior leaders from business, government and civil society in Bogota to discuss the role that business can play in addressing the causes and consequences of armed conflict in Colombia. (Contributed by John Bray)

Public–Private Partnerships in State-Building and Recovery from Conflict
Collaboration between government and business is especially important in states that are recovering from conflict. However, the relationship betweenthe public and private sectors has all too often been undermined by mutual distrust and poor communication. Success demands a focus on local solutions for local problems, and a willingness to select the most appropriate ‘tools’, whether from government, civil society or business. Briefing Paper by John Bray, Control Risks ISP BP 06/01 September 2006 (Contributed by John Bray)

Economic Impact of Peacekeeping – Final Report
The Economic Impact of Peacekeeping (EIP) project, commissioned by PBPS and executed by the Peace Dividend Trust, is the first comprehensive evaluation of the economic footprint of DPKO field operations. The project began in January 2005, and undertook fieldwork in one former and nine current missions. The objective is to develop new policies and practical reform measures that will minimize negative economic effects while using mission spending to help jump-start economic growth.

Economic Aid to Post-conflict Countries: A Methodological Critique of Collier and Hoeffler
This Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Working Paper WP 2005: 4) paper retests the analysis of ''Aid Policy and Growth in Post-Conflict Societies,'' by Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler (October 2002 and forthcoming in European Economic Review). It finds that their data and analysis do not support their conclusions and policy recommendations on the optimal timing and amounts of aid. These conclusions depend on very few observations (13 for the period of peace-onset, 13 for years 4 to 7 when a growth spurt is said to make aid particularly effective, and 8 for the period when aid should taper off); are vulnerable to the same methodological misspecifications identified in the Burnside and Dollar approach on which this analysis is based; and are not grounded in any theoretical formulation about the special relation between aid and growth in post-conflict conditions.

Supporting the Private Sector and Social Partners in Response to Conflicts and Natural Disasters
This volume discusses support for the private sector and social partners in response to conflicts and natural disasters. In Iraq, researchers conducted a study on the role of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in generating income and stimulating development. SMEs, specifically ones with stakeholders of different ethnicities, are also the focus of a study on Macedonia. The role of multinational oil sector enterprises in rebuilding Angola is the topic of the third study. Finally, the last study examines social partner organizations – those representing employers and workers – in the aftermath of the 2003 earthquake in Algeria. A synthesis report cross-analyses the major analytical outputs and recommendations of these studies while examining the overarching theme. ILO, November 2005.

Community-Driven Reconstruction as an Instrument in War-to-Peace Transitions
CPR Working Paper No. 7 by Sarah Cliffe, Scott Guggenheim and Markus Kostner, August 2003

Micro/small enterprises for socio-economic revival
Micro- and small enterprises (MSEs) are pulling economic and employment growth worldwide, but they fit especially well in post-crisis contexts. They can spark off socio-economic revival, as they need little to operate, but can contribute much.

Conflict-Sensitive Business Practice: Guidance for Extractive Industries, March 2005
This is a set of tools for companies concerned about improving their impact on host countries to begin thinking more creatively about understanding and minimising conflict risk, and actively contributing to peace.

Business in Transition: South African experience of companies cooperating to support transition
Report from the Conference on the role of the private sector in peace building, reconciliation and development

Postconflict Infrastructure: Trends in Aid and Investment Flows
As war and civil strife subside, can governments turn to the private sector to restore basic services? Postconflict countries suffer from disproportionately low levels of private investment in infrastructure, with only small-scale service providers likely to emerge during and right after conflict. Larger investors are slow to enter, and when they do they focus almost exclusively on the easily secured and most profitable subsectors. Yet some countries have been able to couple aggressive reform and liberalized policies to attract infrastructure investments soon after conflict abates. What does their experience tell us? Public Policy Journal Issue 305 by Jordan Schwartz and Pablo Halkyard.

Microfinance and Conflict: Toward a Conflict-Sensitive Approach
This thesis by Stacy Michelle Heen attempts to bridge this gap by proposing three ways in which the mobilization of microcredit could, in itself, dampen conflict tensions and reduce the potential for escalation toward open violence. These three mechanisms, termed ''direct”, ''indirect”, and ''process” mitigation, evolved out of field research instigated at the request of a small credit union in rural Cameroon to examine the links between credit and,conflict. These mechanisms, or typology, form the conceptual heart of this thesis.

Peace-Building, Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management
This GTZ working paper seeks to conceptually underpin the new area of work in the specific context of Technical Cooperation.At the same time, it outlines GTZ’s existing services in this sector. It also outlines the prospects for future tasks in this new work domain.TC possesses broad experience in implementing crisis- and conflict-related measures, as reflected in the activity areas and services outlined in the present paper.

Africa’s Recovery from Conflict: Making Peace Work for the Poor
UNU World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU/WIDER) Policy Brief 6 by Tony Addison

Why do some countries economies recover from domestic armed conflicts more quickly than others?
Flores, T. E.; Nooruddin, I. / Ohio State University Library , 2006
This paper analyses why some countries’ economies recover from domestic armed conflicts more quickly than others. The document attempts to explain these differences by developing a set of propositions regarding the effects of political transitions, economic factors, and the nature of the conflicts themselves. It then tests these propositions via duration analysis of an original dataset of economic recovery.

Development policy as an element of global structural and peace policy
German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development BMZ Special No. 67

In Larger Freedom
2005 Report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations subtitled ''Towards Development, Security and Human Rights for All''.

Krisenprävention, Konfliktbearbeitung und Friedensförderung in der deutschen Entwicklungszusammenarbeit

Youth Unemployment and Regional Insecurity in West Africa
The issue of massive youth unemployment has with increasing regularity been identified – by Governments, civil society organizations and development partners – as one of the principal threats to the stability of West African states. In this report the United Nations Office for West Africa (UNOWA) put forward a number of recommendations for increasing youth employment in the region. (Contributed by Sara Spant)

On the Link between Violent Conflict and Chronic Poverty
How much do we really know? by Patricia Justino, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, 2006

Liberia’s Governance and Economic Management Assistance Programme (GEMAP)
This paper examines the factors that led to the introduction of the Governance and Economic Management Assistance Programme (GEMAP) a robust action plan to address economic governance in post-conflict Liberia., initiated by Liberia’s international partners and signed between them and the National Transitional Government of Liberia (NTGL) in September 2005. GEMAP targets public finance management and accountability particularly revenue collection, expenditure controls and government procurement and concession practices.

Regional Trade Agreements: promoting conflict or building peace?
Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) have become a defining feature of the modern economy and a powerful force for globalization. The example of the European Union shows that RTAs can build prosperity and peace. However, RTAs can be divisive and exclusive, their terms can hinder development or even trigger violent conflict. This paper analyses the role that Regional Trade Agreements can play in building, or undermining, peace between and within countries. Paper by Oli Brown, Faisal Haq Shaheen, Shaheen Rafi Khan, Moeed Yusuf, IISD and SDPI, 2005

Foreign Aid and Private Sector Development
This study calls for better reporting on the use of U.S. foreign aid to build up the private sector in developing countries. It examines three tools for strengthening small and medium-sized enterprises in the developing world: enterprise funds, equity funds, and technical assistance from non-governmental organizations. The three approaches have proven useful and important, and the current challenge is to much better understand both their limitations and their capacities as we seek ways to support the development of private enterprises.

Diasporas and Conflict Resolution - Part of the Problem or Part of the Solution?
Paper by Eva Østergaard-Nielsen presented at seminar on Diaspora and Conflict, Peace Builders or Peace Wreckers? Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), 8 December 2005

The challenges of war-torn resource rich countries: what governments and the private sector can do
This United States Institute of Peace report analyses the particular challenges of stabilisation and reconstruction missions in countries rich in hydrocarbons and minerals and provides lessons learned from the recent experience of such countries as Iraq, Sudan, Angola, Liberia, and Afghanistan. It offers recommendations for the U.S. government and others involved in natural resource-rich countries emerging from conflict and also to the extractive industry companies and banking sectors that play a critical role in these states.

Post-Conflict Reconstruction of Communities and Socio-Economic Development
UNDP Issue Paper, Prepared for the TICAD Conference on Consolidation of Peace, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 16-17 February, 2006

War Economies in a Regional Context: Overcoming the Challenges of Transformation
This policy report by Kaysie Studdard distills key findings from research commissioned by the International Peace Academy’s programme on Economic Agendas in Civil Wars (EACW) on the regional dimensions of war economies and the challenges they pose for peacemaking and peacebuilding.
It draws on analytical research as well as case studies, identifying a number of key issues concerning the political economy of regional war economies and lessons for more effective peacebuilding.

U4 Theme: Corruption in Emergencies (CES)
In the wake of the South Asian tsunami in 2004, a number of initiatives have emerged to tackle the particular dangers of corruption in the context of war and natural disasters. Utstein Anti-Corruption Resource Centre consolidates current thinking, address gaps through original research, and offer practical approaches and tools for reducing corruption risks in humanitarian aid.

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